The Inuit ancestors of the Greenlandic people arrived in Greenland close to 1,000 years ago.1 Sin ... Read more
The Inuit ancestors of the Greenlandic people arrived in Greenland close to 1,000 years ago.1 Since then, Eu- ropeans from many different countries have been present in Greenland. Consequently, the present-day Greenlandic population has $25% of its genetic ancestry from Europe.2 In this study, we investigated to what extent different European countries have contributed to this genetic ancestry. We combined dense SNP chip data from 3,972 Greenlanders and 8,275 Europeans from 14 countries and inferred the ancestry contribution from each of these 14 countries using haplotype-based methods. Due to the rapid increase in population size in Greenland over the past $100 years, we hypothesized that earlier European interactions, such as pre-colonial Dutch whalers and early German and Danish-Norwegian missionaries, as well as the later Danish colonists and post-colonial immigrants, all contributed European genetic ancestry. However, we found that the European ancestry is almost entirely Danish and that a substantial fraction is from admix- ture that took place within the last few generations.
The lifestyle of Inuit in Greenland and worldwide is undergoing a transition from a fisher-hunter ... Read more
The lifestyle of Inuit in Greenland and worldwide is undergoing a transition from a fisher-hunter to a westernized society and meanwhile the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically. Stud- ies have shown that a common nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant in TBC1D4, which is frequent in Greenland, con- fers genetic susceptibility towards high risk of T2D. The aim of the study is to investigate whether a traditional marine diet, with high fat and low carbohydrate, will improve glycemic control in Greenland Inuit compared to a western diet. Moreover, we want to examine if the response is more pronounced in carriers of the p.Arg684Ter variant.
Befolkningsundersøgelsen i 2018 er den seneste i en række af fem landsdækkende sundhedsundersøgel ... Read more
Befolkningsundersøgelsen i 2018 er den seneste i en række af fem landsdækkende sundhedsundersøgelser, der er gennemført siden 1993. Befolkningsundersøgelsen i 2018 omfatter 19 af de 38 indikatorer for folkesundheden i Grønland relateret til de indsatsområder som er beskrevet i folkesundhedsprogrammet Inuuneritta II. Disse dækker over befolkningens brug af alkohol og hash, rygevaner, kostmønstre og fysisk aktivitet samt en række forhold i opvæksten med betydning for helbredet langt ind i voksenlivet. Undersøgelsen handler i høj grad også om mental sundhed og trivsel, og der er som noget nyt et særligt fokus på unge og ældre.
Ca homoeostasis is important to human health and tightly controlled by powerful hormonal mechanis ... Read more
Ca homoeostasis is important to human health and tightly controlled by powerful hormonal mechanisms that display ethnic variation. Ethnic variations could occur also in Arctic populations where the traditional Inuit diet is low in Ca and sun exposure is limited. We aimed to assess factors important to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca in serum in Arctic populations. We included Inuit and Caucasians aged 50–69 years living in the capital city in West or in rural East Greenland. Lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaires. The intake of Inuit diet was assessed from a FFQ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD2 and 25OHD3) levels were measured in serum as was albumin, Ca and PTH. The participation rate was 95 %, with 101 Caucasians and 434 Inuit. Median serum 25OHD (99·7 % was 25OHD3) in Caucasians/Inuit was 42/64 nmol/l (25, 75 percentiles 25, 54/51, 81) (P<0·001). Total Ca in serum was 2·33/2·29 mmol/l (25, 75 percentiles 2·26, 2·38/2·21, 2·36) (P=0·01) and PTH was 2·7/2·2 pmol/l (25, 75 percentiles 2·2, 4·1/1·7, 2·7) (P<0·001). The 69/97 Caucasians/Inuit with serum 25OHD <50 nmol/l differed in PTH (P=0·001) that rose with lower 25OHD levels in Caucasians, whereas this was not the case in Inuit. Ethnic origin influenced PTH (β=0·27, P<0·001) and Ca (β=0·22, P<0·001) in multivariate linear regression models after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol and diet. In conclusion, ethnic origin influenced PTH, PTH response to low vitamin D levels and Ca levels in populations in Greenland. Recommendations are to evaluate mechanisms underlying the ethnic influence on Ca homoeostasis and to assess the impact of transition in dietary habits on Ca homoeostasis and skeletal health in Arctic populations.
We previously showed that a common genetic variant leads to a remarkably increased risk of type 2 ... Read more
We previously showed that a common genetic variant leads to a remarkably increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the small and historically isolated Greenlandic population. Motivated by this, we aimed at discovering novel genetic determinants for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and at estimating the effect of known HbA1C-associated loci in the Greenlandic population. We analyzed genotype data from 4049 Greenlanders generated using the Illumina Cardio-Metabochip. We performed the discovery association analysis by an additive linear mixed model. To estimate the effect of known HbA1C-associated loci, we modeled the effect in the European and Inuit ancestry proportions of the Greenlandic genome (EAPGG and IAPGG, respectively). After correcting for multiple testing, we found no novel significant associations. When we investigated loci known to associate with HbA1C levels, we found that the lead variant in the GCK locus associated significantly with HbA1C levels in the IAPGG (PIAPGG=4.8×10−6,βIAPGG=0.13SD). Furthermore, for 10 of 15 known HbA1C loci, the effects in IAPGG were similar to the previously reported effects. Interestingly, the ANK1 locus showed a statistically significant ancestral population differential effect, with opposing directions of effect in the two ancestral populations. In conclusion, we found only 1 of the 15 known HbA1C loci to be significantly associated with HbA1C levels in the IAPGG and that two-thirds of the loci showed similar effects in Inuit as previously found in European and East Asian populations. Our results shed light on the genetic effects across ethnicities.