Reports on fermented, animal-sourced foods made by Inuit around the circumpolar North have lacked ... Read more
Reports on fermented, animal-sourced foods made by Inuit around the circumpolar North have lacked consideration for their unique microbiota and the geo-socio-cultural contexts in which they are made, often resulting in reinforced negative stereotypes. Deficit-based approaches to studying Inuit fermented foods overlook the fact that they have long been considered healthy and integral to Inuit diets. Inuit have deep knowledge on the harvesting, preparation, sharing, and consumption of fermented foods that research efforts must learn from and acknowledge. Our preliminary research into Inuit animal-sourced fermented foods expands current knowledge about the microorganisms needed to make them, and points to a potential to understand how these and other fermented foods impact the human gut microbiome. We provide recommendations for microbiological research on Inuit fermented foods that centers Inuit knowledge within the specific geographic, social, and cultural contexts in which these foods are made.
The Inuit ancestors of the Greenlandic people arrived in Greenland close to 1,000 years ago.1 Sin ... Read more
The Inuit ancestors of the Greenlandic people arrived in Greenland close to 1,000 years ago.1 Since then, Eu- ropeans from many different countries have been present in Greenland. Consequently, the present-day Greenlandic population has $25% of its genetic ancestry from Europe.2 In this study, we investigated to what extent different European countries have contributed to this genetic ancestry. We combined dense SNP chip data from 3,972 Greenlanders and 8,275 Europeans from 14 countries and inferred the ancestry contribution from each of these 14 countries using haplotype-based methods. Due to the rapid increase in population size in Greenland over the past $100 years, we hypothesized that earlier European interactions, such as pre-colonial Dutch whalers and early German and Danish-Norwegian missionaries, as well as the later Danish colonists and post-colonial immigrants, all contributed European genetic ancestry. However, we found that the European ancestry is almost entirely Danish and that a substantial fraction is from admix- ture that took place within the last few generations.
The lifestyle of Inuit in Greenland and worldwide is undergoing a transition from a fisher-hunter ... Read more
The lifestyle of Inuit in Greenland and worldwide is undergoing a transition from a fisher-hunter to a westernized society and meanwhile the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically. Stud- ies have shown that a common nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant in TBC1D4, which is frequent in Greenland, con- fers genetic susceptibility towards high risk of T2D. The aim of the study is to investigate whether a traditional marine diet, with high fat and low carbohydrate, will improve glycemic control in Greenland Inuit compared to a western diet. Moreover, we want to examine if the response is more pronounced in carriers of the p.Arg684Ter variant.