Background: During the last decades, social and life-style changes in Greenland have led to an in ... Read more
Background: During the last decades, social and life-style changes in Greenland have led to an increase in the incidence of several non-communicable diseases. Our aim is to present the cancer incidence and mortality in Greenland and compare the results with the other Nordic countries.
Methods: The data stems from The Danish Cancer Registry and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Comparable data on cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Greenland are available through collaboration between Nordic Cancer Registries (NORDCAN). We included all individuals residing in Greenland and diagnosed with or died of a cancer from 1983 to 2014.
Findings: The total number of cancer cases in Greenland for the study period was 4716 and there were 3231 cancer deaths. Respiratory and gastrointestinal cancers had the highest incidence as well as mortality in Greenland for the entire time period and for both sexes. Compared to the other Nordic countries, Greenland had significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for several cancers. Cancer of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx, respiratory cancer, and cancer of unknown sites had the highest incidence rate ratios (2.3–3.9) and mortality rate ratios (2.7–9.9) for both sexes. The time trend from 1983 to 2014 showed a significant increase in cancer incidence in Greenland with nearly the same incidence level as the other Nordic countries. While the cancer mortality decreased in the other Nordic countries during the time period studied, there was no change in the cancer-specific mortality in Greenland.
Interpretations: The trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Greenland compared to the other Nordic countries have not been reported earlier. These data underline a need to focus on cancer-specific mortality in Greenland and prevention of high-incidence cancers related to well-established risk factors.
SETTING: The northern circumpolar jurisdictions Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, ... Read more
SETTING: The northern circumpolar jurisdictions Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk), Sweden and the United States (Alaska).
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics, including drug resistance and treatment completion, of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the northern circumpolar populations.
DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of all active TB cases reported from 2006 to 2012 for incidence rate (IR), age and sex distribution, sputum smear and diagnostic site characteristics, drug resistance and treatment completion rates.
RESULTS: The annual IR of TB disease ranged from a low of 4.3 per 100 000 population in Northern Sweden to a high of 199.5/100 000 in Nunavik, QC, Canada. For all jurisdictions, IR was higher for males than for females. Yukon had the highest proportion of new cases compared with retreatment cases (96.6%). Alaska reported the highest percentage of laboratory-confirmed cases (87.4%). Smear-positive pulmonary cases ranged from 25.8% to 65.2%. Multidrug-resistant cases ranged from 0% (Northern Canada) to 46.3% (Arkhangelsk). Treatment outcome data, available up to 2011, demonstrated >80% treatment completion for four of the 10 jurisdictions.
CONCLUSION: TB remains a serious public health issue in the circumpolar regions. Surveillance data contribute toward a better understanding and improved control of TB in the north.