We summarised available hepatitis C virus (HCV) surveillance data for 2012–14 from Arctic/sub-Arc ... Read more
We summarised available hepatitis C virus (HCV) surveillance data for 2012–14 from Arctic/sub-Arctic countries/regions. We sent a HCV data collection template by email to public health authorities in all jurisdictions. Population statistics obtained from census sources for each country were used to estimate rates of reported acute and chronic/undifferentiated HCV cases. Seven countries with Arctic regions (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden and the United States, represented by the state of Alaska), including three Canadian territories and one province, as well as 11 Russian subnational Arctic regions, completed the data collection template. Data on acute HCV infection during 2014 was available from three Arctic countries and all Russian Arctic regions (rate range 0/100,000 population in Greenland, as well as Nenets and Chukotka Automous Okrugs (Russian subnational Arctic regions) to 3.7/100,000 in the Russian Republic of Komi). The rate of people with chronic/undifferentiated HCV infection in 2014 ranged from 0/100,000 in Greenland to 171.2/100,000 in Alaska. In most countries/regions, the majority of HCV-infected people were male and aged 19–64 years. Differences in surveillance methods preclude direct comparisons of HCV surveillance data between Arctic countries/regions. Our data can inform future efforts to develop standardised approaches to HCV surveillance in the Arctic countries/regions by identifying similarities/differences between the surveillance data collected.
SETTING: The northern circumpolar jurisdictions Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, ... Read more
SETTING: The northern circumpolar jurisdictions Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk), Sweden and the United States (Alaska).
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics, including drug resistance and treatment completion, of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the northern circumpolar populations.
DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of all active TB cases reported from 2006 to 2012 for incidence rate (IR), age and sex distribution, sputum smear and diagnostic site characteristics, drug resistance and treatment completion rates.
RESULTS: The annual IR of TB disease ranged from a low of 4.3 per 100 000 population in Northern Sweden to a high of 199.5/100 000 in Nunavik, QC, Canada. For all jurisdictions, IR was higher for males than for females. Yukon had the highest proportion of new cases compared with retreatment cases (96.6%). Alaska reported the highest percentage of laboratory-confirmed cases (87.4%). Smear-positive pulmonary cases ranged from 25.8% to 65.2%. Multidrug-resistant cases ranged from 0% (Northern Canada) to 46.3% (Arkhangelsk). Treatment outcome data, available up to 2011, demonstrated >80% treatment completion for four of the 10 jurisdictions.
CONCLUSION: TB remains a serious public health issue in the circumpolar regions. Surveillance data contribute toward a better understanding and improved control of TB in the north.